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Krohne Family

Hilma Krohne with sons J.D. & C.B. c1927 Krohne Island

Clockwise from top left C.O. Krohne c1904 Krohne Island Right Prize winning apple display State Fair c1910 Lower apple picking, sorting & packing Krohne Island c1910 this was a big operation and 1,500 trees produced a lot of apples, after packing they were rail shipped throughout Montana and the nation.

C.O. Krohne with son B.T. inspect his orchard for winter kill in this rare c1908 photo, Krohne Island at riverbank.

A frail C.O. Krohne examines his orchard for winter kill trees c1908, he is standing on two wooden legs, notice he walks with 2 canes, in just 9 years he would be gone of a stroke as a direct result of loosing his legs in the 1880’s. Only in his early 50’s at death in 1917, one can only imagine had he lived another 20 years.

C.O. Krohne seated in his 1908 Mitchell “Mother-in-Law Seat Roadster”, in front of the Krohne Block 116 E. Callender St, Livingston c1909 note the fact his is the only auto on the then unpaved street, also note the window in the center of the building reads “Charles O. Krohne Real Estate” the Krohne Estate still has the Brass E & J oil side & tail lights from this car. This Mitchell would have cost $1,725.00 in 1908, TWICE THE PRICE OF THE AVERAGE HOME IN LIVINGSTON AT THE TIME ! The Krohne family owned and operated the very first automobile in Livingston, C.O. Krohne’s 1903 “Haase” Model “B” Phaeton.

Krohne Island House c1925 Hilma Krohne 1886-1971 & C.B. Krohne 1920-1988, the house still stands today, looking exactly the same, occupied by a 5th generation Krohne Family


The Courthouse

This impressive brick courthouse, shown shortly after construction, opened August 1, 1896, amid much fanfare. Initially part of Gallatin County, one of nine original Montana territorial counties. Park County had been created nine years earlier in February 1887, with Livingston as county seat. Despite some opposition, this venerable landmark was razed in 1974 to make way tor the new city-county government complex.



Here is Coxey’s Army on the way to Washington D.C. to demand jobs in 1894. Livingston played an important part in the great American Railway Strike, because it was an important division point of the Northern Pacific. The first train was held up here on June 27. For 13 days, no train passed through town. It was July 11 when the strike was called off.


The first town at the great bend of the Yellowstone was Clark City, where merchandise for railroad builders first arrived. Unknown to residents there, railroad officials had purchased land farther north and decreed that the tracks should be placed there, where they could reap a handsome profit. Clark Street was named for the abandoned Clark City. Post office was established in Clark City on October 17, 1882, and in Livingston on November 13, 1882.


James “Yankee Jim” George came to the area in 1873. He squatted above the canyon and took over the wagon road, which had been constructed the previous year by Bart Henderson and Adam “Horn” Miller. He built a way station and charged toll over the road. Henderson and Miller had built the road to take mining supplies by wagon into the Cooke City area.

Yankee Jim’s toll gate was between the house and barn. Toll charges were $2.50 for one wagon and one team of horses or mules; $1.50 for each additional team; $1 for a single horse and rider; 75 cents for a pack horse; and 5 cents for each head of horses, cattle, or sheep.



The Wan-I-Gan grew in size and services during the 28 years when the Whithorns owned it from 1948 to 1976. Twelve cabins were available for tourists, fishermen, hunters, and (for 17 years) Dr. Townsend’s patients. Those cabins were marked by births, deaths, and recuperations. The Horn House was added in 1954. The Wan-I-Gan ceased being a business in December of 1983.



President Roosevelt rode down from Mammoth with Major Pitcher. James C. McCartney, the so-called “Mayor of Gardiner,” joined them. The child is thought to be Paul Hoppe, son of Walter Hoppe, owner of the log livery stable in the background. Upstairs from the stable was a public dance hall.



In 1886, Floyd Thompson made the trek west to Livingston and joined the Thompson Brothers partnership. The enterprise boomed, and the brothers built a new complex on the corner of Main and Callender Streets. This 1890s view depicts Floyd tending the counter in the dry goods department. Catherine Lane Interiors resides at the same location today.


Well known throughout Montana, the Gateway City Band was on-call to entertain at the myriad of local social functions and festivities. Incorporated in 1903, the band purchased new uniforms in 1907. Lead by Joe Brooks, they played at functions held throughout Montana and played regularly at the Montana State Fair.

The Livingston Enterprise

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Aug. 13, 1910 Issue featuring the Elks Convention and the Gateway City Band



Lucy “Lulu” Ballinger, a schoolteacher, apparently presented Miss Liberty for a Fourth of July celebration pageant in 1893. One of five sisters, Lulu moved with her family to Montana in 1880.


Located on Lewis and D Streets, it was the first church constructed in Livingston. Although 1883 newspapers advertised nearly 30 saloons casting about to capture the spirits of men, the religious side of life was not neglected. On July 25, 1883, foundations for the Methodist Episcopal church were laid by Rev. George Comfort.


Centered between Brainard, Minnesota, and its terminus in Portland Oregon, Livingston became the hub of the NPRR in 1883. To navigate the Bozeman pass, the NPRR designed a switchback and used helper engines stored in Livingston to help with this steep ascent over the pass.


Arriving in Livingston around 1904, Herbert Cummings (Commings) and son Lyman took over Wakefield’s old livery business in 1906. The Cummings business moved into a new brick building on Lewis and 3rd Streets in 1909. Businessmen Mertz and Blair took over the old livery location on Callender and 2nd Streets, establishing an automobile business. The advent of the horseless carriage steered the Cummings family into launching an automobile repair business and Chevrolet dealership.


Livingston appeared a bustling metropolis in this view looking east on Callender Street around 1935. Many businesses had come and gone since the turn of the century, but a few standards remained, including the Park Hotel, rebuilt in 1904 after a disastrous fire, and James Vicar’s Drug Store, a fixture since 1906. In the next decade, the classic bell tower of City Hall would be removed, forever changing the skyline.


It seems no early Western town was complete without a local cigar factory that catered to the gentlemanly pleasure enjoyed by kings and commoners alike. Livingston was no exception, and for almost 50 years, the Garnier Cigar Company provided the smoke enjoyed by railroad workers, tourists, businessmen, and probably Calamity Jane. Charles Gamier and son Charles Jr. for a time supported a payroll surpassed only by the Northern Pacific.


Established in July 1886, the Gamier Cigar Company produced handmade cigars from leaves grown in Cuba, Honduras, and Connecticut. Garnier’s original factory was devastated by fire in 1897 but was soon replaced by this brick edifice on North 2nd Street. One of several manufacturers in town, Gamier competed with Charles Manley and James Shipton’s cigar brands, J. S. and Livingston Favorite. Gamier also served as mayor and city treasurer. Crafted in different shapes and sizes, the Montana Sport was Garnier’s only cigar. However, upward of 40,000 cigars per month were produced to supply local and regional demand. Featuring i droopy-eared Mack and white Springer spaniel, Garnier’s trademark logo graced cigar boxes, bands, and advertising materials for many years. Charles Sr. died in 1939 and Charles Jr. followed in 1944, bringing an end to this historic enterprise.

Carved by a Chicago firm in 1883, this gaily painted cigar-store Indian was shipped by rail to Charles Manley’s cigar factory in Livingston. “Chief Skookum” guarded Manley’s factory on North Main Street until fire destroyed the operation July 4, 1887. Manley and his wooden friend moved to Tacoma, Washington, where they managed a cigar store for 50 years. Charles confers with “The Chief” in this 1938 photograph.


This rustic log depot was built at the end of the Northern Pacific Railroad’s spur line – from Livingston to Gardiner in 1903. Robert Reamer, the architect to the Old Faithful Inn, designed this attractive building. The Roosevelt arch was constructed the same year and faced the depot and became the official North entrance to Yellowstone. Six-horse Concord stage coaches carried tourists from the depot to the Mammoth Hotel. After 1916, the yellow tour busses of the Y P Transportation Company replaced the stagecoaches. Regular scheduled train passenger service to Gardiner ended in 1948, and a lamentable decision was made 6 years later to demolish this historic site.


Long before the white man arrived, the Shoshone, Bannock, Blackfoot and Crow Indians called this area “The Valley of the Flowers”. This was a sacred, natural territory used for hunting. In 1864 gold was discovered bringing an influx of miners and settlers making Livingston a town in 1882 with the coming of the Northern Pacific railroad. This 1918 photo shows the 1902 Northern Pacific Depot on the right behind the locomotive smoke.


Excerpts from the book “Imprints on Pioneer Trails”
by Ida McPherren, Hugo Hoppe’s great niece. 

        Sherman Canfield was born on a ranch in Nebraska, near what is now West Point in 1865, was a frequent visitor to Cinnabar. His father, George Canfield and his mother (nee: Rhodes) were pioneers of Nebraska, and it was while operating a small boarding house close to the stockyards in Omaha that George Canfield met Buffalo Bill.
        When Buffalo Bill formed the Wild West Show in 1887 and took it to England, he took George Canfield’s son, Sherman, with him as his private secretary.  Sherman followed the show until 1892 when his father was manager of the newly constructed Sheridan Inn, and Sherman quit the show to assist his father in its management.

        It was while he was with Buffalo Bill that Sherman got to know the crowned heads of Europe by their first names and often entertained them in the royal box at the show……. 

        ……….in Cinnabar, Sherman telephoned to Cooke City, Gardiner,  Horr, Aldridge, Red Lodge, and sent a cowboy riding to outfits to give notice that there would be a tryout for riders for Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show the coming Sunday.

        The next morning, I came home and that night every man in Cinnabar and the cowboys, who had arrived for the tryouts, got gloriously, hilariously, drunk………….

        That night Cinnabar celebrated in a mild form of the previous night’s carousal but the lights were out and everyone between suggans before midnight for the next day was the day of the tryouts for the coveted position of rider in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show.
        The bucking contest was held on the arena in front of Cinnabar’s grandstand at noon as the last stage had rolled Parkward. A few tourists laid over for the show and were part of a crowd of approximately five hundred spectators who witnessed what was one of the greatest exhibitions of bronco busting I have ever witnessed through all the years that followed. Sherman was the sole judge.
        It was a clean exhibition of horses that had never been ridden trying to get the objectionable weight on their backs off and the weight sticking.  Along in mid-afternoon a funny incident occurred.  A young man, about twenty-three years of age, came riding up the road leading a wild horse. The man was wearing cowboy boots and spurs, but no chaps, sombrero or the customary vest.  He asked to ride in the tryouts.
        Stares, sneers and sniggers were openly directed in his direction but Sherman said to let him ride. A cowboy held the wild horse while the stranger uncinched his flimsy old saddle; transferred it to the bronc and climbed aboard.
        With that the fun was on.  With his head to the ground and back arched like an angry cat’s the wild cayuse bucked and pitched sunfished; jumped straight up and came down a twisting and then shook himself in an effort to get rid of the man on his back……..
          Unable to unseat his rider, the horse broke into a run down the road……….. Sherman stood waving his hat and cheering one of the finest rides he had ever seen.
        The cowboy who had practiced every spare moment for a year for the event but who did not have enough money to purchase a cowboy outfit got the job…………

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Park County, so named due to its proximity to Yellowstone National Park, was created by the territorial legislature February 23, 1887.

Prior to the coming of the white man the only residents were Crow Indians who roamed the entire Yellowstone River basin. The first white people to enter the local area were the famous Lewis and Clark along with their party including Sacajawea. Jim Bridger (the famous scout and mountain man) wintered with the Crow Indians near Emigrant in 1844-45.

In the three decades after Lewis and Clark, this area as well as much of the mountain west was actively trapped by hundreds of men, primarily for beaver. In the decades starting 1840 and 1850, the trapping activity largely ceased because of lack of beaver demand due to the changed styles and the country being trapped out.

Gold was discovered in Emigrant Gulch in 1863. By the fall of 1864, several hundred men were working claims there. When winter came, 75 log huts were built at the mouth of the gulch and the town named Yellowstone City.

In 1864, John Bozeman opened up the new road bearing his name to shorten, by several hundred miles, the route between Fort Laramie and the gold localities of Western Montana. The road passed through the Livingston area and then out over Bozeman Pass.

In the mid-1860s, there was much travel going east. The almost complete lack of roads in the territory led to the use of the rivers, including the Yellowstone, as routes. The Livingston area was an embarkation point for hundreds of people prepared to risk the hazards of the river and Indians in mackinaws (these were flat boats 30-50 feet long and 4-5 feet high at the sides, some with crude cabins on them).

Much of the lumber came fro the first saw mill in the area on Mill Creek. In 1865 one fleet of 42 mackinaws left the boat yard on September 27. A year later a fleet of 16 mackinaws left the Livingston area with 250 miners carrying $500,000 in gold. They made the 2700 mile trip to St. Joseph in 28 days.

In 1864 Hunter’s Hot Springs was discovered by Dr. Hunter and his party, passing through. Dr. Hunter returned six years later, built a house and took residence, in spite of Indian dangers. Later, the area was famous as a resort for many years.

In 1866, 600 Longhorn cattle that had made the “long drive” from Texas were trailed into the Shields Valley by Nelson Story for eventual sale to the miners further west. Before this could be accomplished, over half of the cattle were lost to marauding Sioux.

In April 1867, John Bozeman was killed by Blackfoot Indians near Mission Creek. This incident, added to others, caused the then territorial governor to organize a militia to punish the Indians and protect the settlers. Six hundred men encamped at Fort Howie at the mouth of the Shields River.

In 1868, in accordance with the Crow Treaty of that year, an Indian agency was established on the Crow reservation on Mission Creek. It was considered the finest fort in the territory, fully stockaded, blockhouses on the corners, etc. The requirements of the Fort for supplies caused a ferry to be set up across the Yellowstone River four miles east of the present site of Livingston. A small settlement, known as Benson’s landing, grew up here. For many years, it was the focal point of the area with some log houses, a hotel, several saloons, etc. It served as a stage stop, trading post and post office.

For a very long time, the area of Yellowstone Park was almost completely unknown. The stories told over the years by Jim Bridger, traders and the Indians were received incredulously. The place was known as “Colter’s Hell” from Colter’s stories of his winter there in 1807-1808. In 1869, the first real exploring party entered the Park area, followed by the Washburn party of 1870 and Hayden party of 1871. This lead to the creation by Congress of the country’s first national park in 1872.

By 1880, the population for the county was only about 200. In 1881, the Northern Pacific Railroad, building a line westward, entered the state of Montana. Livingston was reached November 22, 1882 where a settlement of 500 people had sprung up, awaiting the railroad. In 1883, the National Park branch of the NP Railroad was completed and the east west sections of the railroad joined together near Garrison, this opened up the entire country.

Following these events, the local area had a period of rapid growth. By 1890, the county had a population of 6,900. Steady growth since then has brought the county to where it is today.

Interested in reading more from Doris Whithorn?





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